First Peoples of Virginia

Virginia Tribes by 1607

Virginia Native Language Groups by 1607

Map of Virginia tribes by linguistic affiliation circa 1607

By the end of the Woodland period, tribal groups were well delineated geographically, with Algonquian speakers on the Coastal Plain, Siouan speakers in the Piedmont, and Iroqouian speakers in the far southwest and south central areas. The Shenandoah Valley was used as a travel corridor and was home at various times to Shawnee, Iroquois, and Monacan peoples.

   When the colonists arrived, the Woodland period effectively ended for some tribal communities; although others were not in direct contact with the settlers for another hundred years, the ramifications of their presence were far-reaching in terms of disease and relocation.