First Peoples of Virginia

The Monacan Confederation

The Monacan confederation included all of the Siouan-speaking peoples of the Piedmont and mountain regions of Virginia. The central Monacan were identified as the following communities on John Smith's 1624 map: Mowhemcho, Massinacack, Rassawek, Manahassanaugh, and Monasukapanough. The Mannahoac, a related group of tribes, lived along the tributaries of the Rappahannock farther north and consisted of these communities, according to Smith: Mowhaskahod, Tauxnitania, Stegara, Hassininga, and Shackaconia.


John Smith's map of 1624 identifies the locations of five Monacan towns and five affiliated Mannahoac towns, all members of a Siouan confederation.