First Peoples of Virginia

Siouan-Speaking Peoples

Western Siouan–Language Distribution

Siouan-Speaking tribes at the time of European contact.

Siouan speakers have lived in the Piedmont and Mountain regions of what is now Virginia for at least several thousand years. Their cultural complex is known to archaeologists through the existence of burial mounds that date back more than 900 years. At least 13 of these mounds were used throughout the region. Many have been destroyed by plowing or artifact removal.

Siouan peoples farmed and hunted, relying less on fish than the Indians of the Coastal Plain. They developed an elaborate mortuary practice. Because these tribes interacted infrequently with colonists and settlers, we known less about them than the Powhatan peoples.