People of the Waters
For almost 100 years, however, the Pamunkey and Mattaponi tribes have operated fish hatcheries on the two rivers bearing their names. Here they help the migrating American shad to spawn, and each year they return some 2 million "fry," or newly hatched fish, to their rivers.
The Mattaponi and Pamunkey reservations were established by treaty in 1658 and held in trust subsequently by the Commonwealth of Virginia. In 2015, the Pamunkey became the first Virginia tribe to become officially acknowledged by the federal government; thus, their land in now in federal trust.